國樂名家

【古箏簡史】箏,自古有“秦箏”之稱,是因為它大約源于戰國時期的秦(疆域包括今陜、甘、川、渝地區及晉一部),有著十分久遠的歷史,故近代又稱之為古箏。據史籍記載及當代發掘的類箏實物推測,箏自春秋晚期至戰國已有流行,尤以秦地(今陜西及甘肅東南一帶)為盛。《史記?李斯列傳》記,李斯于公元前237年在其諫逐客書中描述;“夫擊甕、叩擊、彈箏、搏髀,而歌呼嗚嗚快耳目者,真秦之聲也。”這是史籍中關于“箏”的最早記載。 箏的起源,歷代史籍中有多種說法。筑(竹)身瑟弦說,蒙恬造箏說,破瑟為箏說。后經史料記載推斷,破瑟為箏說為演義,蒙恬造箏說與史不符,唯筑(竹)身瑟弦說較為合理,可信。而“箏”名稱的由來,尙可以后漢劉熙《釋名》所描述的“施弦高急,箏箏然也”為據。盡管歷代箏的形制大同小異,弦數多少不一,但其結構原理和表演技法是一致的,同是五均調律定音的弦柱樂器;同是左右手配合、彈按并重,聲韻互補,以達到表現不同情趣、不同風格的“奮逸響、妙入神”的雅韻妙曲來。 在當代,箏及其音樂藝術是唯一完美地保留著藝術流派、且為最受大眾青睞、最為普及的中國傳統樂種;箏及其音樂藝術之所以能夠達到如此高的境界,與它在發展歷程中不斷修正、完善自我不無關系。從其最初的“五弦筑身”始,至戰國、秦、漢、唐、宋、元、明、清以是十三弦箏為主,再至上世紀六十年代由徐振高先生研發S型岳山二十一弦箏;從“施弦高急,箏箏然也”至借鑒西方近現代作曲技法所形成的一曲一弦列的創作模式,中國古箏音樂藝術在與時俱進地完成無數次蛻變之歷程中,始終固守并傳承著傳統箏樂之基因。

已選擇: 古箏名家

索引:

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

秦羅敷

趙國邯鄲(今河北邯鄲市)人,為邑人千乘王仁(后為趙王家令)之妻。善彈箏。某日,羅敷出,采桑于陌上,趙王登臺,見而悅之,因置酒欲奪焉

游楚

三國魏人。據《古今圖書集成》記載:昔魏文帝曰:‘斬泗濱之梓以為箏。則梓之為木,非特以為琴瑟,亦用之為箏者矣。’凡此非君子

郝素

魏晉之世人,一作郝索,箏藝高超,負有盛名,深為當時精通音律的哲學家和文學家傅玄所推崇:郝素善彈箏,雖伯牙妙手,吳姬奇聲,何以加之?

桓伊

譙國鈺縣(今安徽濉溪)人,字叔夏,小字子野(一作野王)。桓伊頗有軍事才能,曾與謝玄等率兵在淝水大破秦軍,穩定了東晉的偏安局面。初任

謝尚

東晉陳國陽夏(今河南太康縣)人,字仁祖,其父謝鯤。能歌善鼓琴,王衍、嵇紹并奇之。(《晉書》)謝尚在其父的言傳身教下,善音樂,博綜眾

何承天

(370- 447年) 南朝宋無神論思想家、天文學家。東海郯(今山東郯城)人。五歲喪父。母徐氏,聰明博學,教子有方,故何承天幼漸訓義,儒

辛宣仲

南朝宋隴西(今甘肅境內)人。大明(457-464年)末離居襄陽縣西六里松竹林中一間草廬內,不交塵俗,故又稱辛居士。善彈箏,與淮南胡陶、京

索成

北魏人,一作索丞,字伯夷。箏技高超,尤能傳神。悲歌能使喜者墮淚,改調易謳,能使戚者起舞。時人號日雍門周。

張瑋

北魏人,武定(545-550年)中任豫州征西府長史。張瑋善彈箏,其母劉氏也通箏藝。其母亡后,張瑋彈了一曲凄涼的《清調》,以寄哀思。其弟張

孫思元

北魏人,善彈箏,早卒。其弟孫紹與其感情甚好,紹后聞箏聲便涕泗嗚咽,舍之而去,世以此尚之。(《魏書·孫紹》)

李元忠

北朝東魏人,祖籍趙君(在今河北境內)。元忠少厲志操,居喪以孝聞。襲爵平棘子。后被詔為營構明堂大都督,又引為主簿。元忠粗覽史書及陰陽

魏氏

初唐楚州淮陰(一作揚州)人,樊彥琛之妻,精通音樂,尤善彈箏。彥琛卒后,屬李敬業之亂,乃為賊所獲。賊黨知其素解絲竹,逼令彈箏。魏氏嘆

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