國樂名家

【二胡簡史】根據音樂考古史的研究,弦月樂器是最早出現在兩河流域或古埃及(約公元前3000年),豎琴的發明可能來源于狩獵工具---原始弓的啟迪。雖然中國周代(公元前1000年)就有了古琴(其來源未能確考)這樣的弦樂樂器,但是關于弓弦樂器的明確記載,始見于五代后晉劉煦等撰的《舊唐書?音樂志》,《音樂志》曰;“軋箏,以片竹潤其端而軋之”。軋,碾也,以一片竹板(硬弓,而不是像馬尾弓那樣的柔弓)摩擦琴弦(硬擦,而不是像馬尾那樣的柔擦)而發聲。 唐代以“胡琴”稱琵琶、忽雷等撥弦樂器暫且不論,宋元以來,經過“奚琴”,“嵇琴”,“馬尾胡琴”,“胡琴”的形制和名稱的交互演變,隱含著兩類弓弦樂器的發展,一類是弦外弓擦的北族胡琴,一類是弦內弓擦的漢地胡琴(“奚琴”)。“奚琴”保持弦內軋擦方法和筒形音箱,而用馬尾弓,則成為“二胡”。山西繁峙巖山寺經塔(塔的建筑年代為元代大定二十三年即公元1183年)上的胡琴,已與后世二胡的形制近似。朝鮮《樂學軌范》(序于1494年)曰:“以黜檀花木或烏竹、海竹弓馬尾弦。用松脂軋之”,已經是近現代二胡的形制。但直到清代《皇朝禮樂圖式》中,將漢地二弦、提琴劃入胡琴類,“胡琴”這一名稱才最終成為漢地弓弦樂器的統稱。

已選擇: 二胡名家

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